In the past, researchers investigated the immune response acting against mycobacterial antigens in tuberculosis (TB). Several ELISA tests have been conducted for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Other researchers manipulated 16 kDa antigen from Mycobacterium Tuberculosis to develop a tuberculosis diagnostic test while some others studied the subspecies of M. tuberculosis. In the present study, we explored the possibilities of detecting 16 kDa protein derived from M. tuberculosis, on an interdigitated electrode (IDE). Measurements with Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-volt systems were demonstrated using antibody as the probe. Further, the involvement of gold nanoparticle for the signal-enhancement and high-performance are evidenced. The specificity in the serum containing samples is used to show the clinical relevancy. 16 kDa antigen used in this experiment is highly reliable for TB diagnosis as it largely expresses and can be implemented in other sensing system.
Peripheral nerve injury is a serious and disabling disease prevalent in the world. It caused by trauma is often accompanied with soft tissue injuries, fractures, infections, etc., and can cause permanent damage. The treatment methods of peripheral nerve injury mainly include traditional microsurgical repair, neurotrophic drug treatment, as well as cuttingedge nerve conduit treatment, nerve stimulation, cell therapy, etc. However, more than 30% of patients with peripheral nerve injury still have poor recovery, including partial loss or complete loss of motor and/or sensory function, muscle atrophy，chronic pain and severe disability, among can lead to permanent disease. Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites which is the most abundant in plants, consisting of an aromatic ring and one or more hydroxyl substituents, the main groups including flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, stilbene and lignans. A lot of studies have shown that natural phenolic compounds have various properties, such as antioxidant, anti-infective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, etc., and have broad applications in the prevention of heart disease, cancer, diabetes, oxidative stress-related diseases, and neuroprotection prospect. This review discusses the potential applications and molecular mechanisms of natural phenolic compounds its polymer derivatives in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury.
Noninvasive acquisition of deep tissue temperature has important applications in home health monitoring, hyperthermia safety control, and other domains. In this work, we present here a novel magnetically mediated thermoacoustic temperature measurement method. Utilizing coil to stimulate amplitude modulated magnetic field and ultrasound transducer to receive the generated thermoacoustic wave from the inserted magnetic nanoparticles. Benefiting from the high sensitivity of thermoacoustic emission from nanoparticles and the deep penetration capability of both magnetic field and ultrasound propagation, the proposed thermoacoustic temperature measurement system enables a high measurement accuracy of 0.5 degrees Celsius in real time. This work potentially facilitates further development of closed loop magnetic hyperthermia for practical clinical applications.
Cancer is the leading cause of death in the world, throughout the global researches of cancer treatment, people have a deeper understanding of cancer, and the treatment methods are constantly breakthrough. Conventional surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy have serious adverse effects and patients' quality of life is not significantly improved. Now, photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy andthermodynamic therapy based on nanotechnology and materials technology are booming, and the development of these novel cancer therapies and their combination therapies brings more possibilities for cancer treatment. This review summarizes the research progress of novel cancer therapies based on nano and material technology from the aspects of mechanism of action and therapeutic methods, hoping to provide reference for their clinical application.
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have emerged as a promising strategy for enhancing the membrane permeability of bioactive molecules, particularly in the treatment of central nervous system diseases. CPPs possess the ability to deliver a diverse array of bioactive molecules into cells using either covalent or non-covalent approaches, with a preference for non-covalent methods to preserve the biological activity of the transported molecules. By effectively traversing various physiological barriers, CPPs have exhibited significant potential in preclinical and clinical drug development. The discovery of CPPs represents a valuable solution to the challenge of limited membrane permeability of bioactive molecules and will continue to exert a crucial influence on the field of biomedical science.
Cardiovascular disease is still a disease with high incidence rate and mortality. Although advanced technology continues to increase our understanding of cardiovascular disease, its diagnosis and treatment still have limitations. As an emerging interdisciplinary method, nanotechnology has shown enormous clinical application potential. Nanomaterials have unique physical and chemical properties, which help to improve the sensitivity and specificity of biosensor technology and molecular imaging technology in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. This paper first summarizes the versatility of nanomaterials, the physicochemical adjustability of biomolecular engineering, the design strategy of nanoparticles in cardio cerebral Vascular disease, the application of nanomaterials in the diagnosis and treatment of common cardiovascular diseases, and the use of nanomaterials can significantly improve the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and therapeutic effect. Subsequently, the article summarized various nanomaterials. Finally, the article demonstrated the potential of the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory and photoelectric/photothermal properties of nanomaterials to be directly applied to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
The progression in nanotechnology has revolutionized the biomedical sciences for diagnosis and treatment of diseases like cancer. There have been many kinds of nanomaterials but Inorganic nanomaterials have been considered potential candidates for anticancer activities due to their high biocompatibility, less toxicity, high stability, and high precision in targeting affected cells. Several synthesis approaches have been used to prepared these nanoparticles, such as physical, chemical, and biogenic methods. Due to higher toxicity and adverse effects of chemical methods, eco-friendly way such as biosynthesized inorganic nanomaterials have attained much attention for multiple application particularly treatment of diseases. This review presents a comprehensive and updated knowledge (2015-2023) regarding the cancer treatment. The article first categorizes biogenically synthesized inorganic nanoparticles into three main groups: metallic nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles, and quantum dots and then successful stories related to cancer treatment. This will also provide very effective platform for researchers and academia to detail the biogenically synthesized inorganic nanoparticles’ morphology, their characterization, targeted cancer cells.
Cancer treatment faces multiple challenges, including tumor heterogeneity, drug resistance, microenvironment influence, treatment side effects, and treatment cost. The heterogeneity of the tumor makes the effect of the same treatment vary in different patients, so the development of personalized treatment strategies is crucial. In addition, resistance of tumor cells to therapeutic drugs is a major challenge, and new strategies to overcome resistance are needed. As a cutting-edge field of science and technology, nanotechnology has brought great potential and opportunities for tumor treatment. Nanoparticle drug delivery systems improve drug efficacy and reduce side effects through precise targeted delivery and controlled release. Cell-membrane coated nanoparticles show great promise in tumor therapy. Nanoparticles coated with cell membranes have good biocompatibility, can reduce the obstacles of immune rejection and cell uptake, improve the accumulation and retention of drugs in tumor tissues, and have good drug delivery ability, drug stability and control release ability. This review discusses advances in the use of cell-membrane coated nanoparticles to target tumor drugs.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen, and its presence in medical environments and water bodies has attracted widespread attention. Traditional detection methods are usually time-consuming and cumbersome, so it is necessary to develop a rapid and sensitive detection technology. DNase can specifically recognize and cut DNA molecules complementary to its substrate sequence. The researchers took advantage of this property to design various DNase-based sensors for detecting the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These sensors usually use DNase as a recognition element to identify target strains by hybridizing with specific DNA sequences. When the target strain is present, DNase is activated and begins to catalyze the cleavage reaction, producing a detectable signal. This DNase-based sensor has the advantages of rapidity, high sensitivity, and high specificity. In addition, the researchers also explored combining DNase with nanomaterials, fluorescent dyes, etc. to further improve the performance of the sensor. These improvements have improved the detection ability of the sensor in complex samples, laying the foundation for practical applications. With the continuous improvement of technology, these sensors are expected to be widely used in medical, environmental monitoring and other fields, and provide more efficient and convenient solutions for bacterial detection. This study reviewed the research progress of DNase-based sensors for the rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.