The requirement of having multiple nanocarriers (NCs) and active agents for improved therapy, imaging, and controlled release of medications efficiently in one platform has made the creation of therapeutics and theragnostic nanodrug delivery systems a difficult task for present researchers. Multiple drug resistance (MDR), a high clearance rate, severe side effects, undesirable drug distribution to the specific site of liver cancer, and a low concentration of medication that reaches liver cancer cells are just a few of the drawbacks of traditional liver cancer chemotherapy. As a result, new techniques and NCs must be developed to transport the medication molecules targeted to the malignant hepatocytes in an acceptable number and duration inside the therapeutic window. Because of the great efficacy of drug loading or drug encapsulation efficiency, high cellular uptake, high drug release, and minimal adverse effects, therapeutics and theragnostic systems have benefits over conventional chemotherapy. These NCs have a high drug accumulation rate in tumours while causing minimal toxicity in healthy tissues. This study focuses on current research on NC-based therapies and theragnostic drug delivery systems, omitting nanotechnology's negative consequences in the field of drug delivery systems. Clinical advancements of theragnostic NCs for liver cancer, on the other hand, are not covered in this article. Only the most current breakthroughs in NC-based drug delivery systems for liver cancer therapy and diagnosis are discussed in this study. This review will not go over the detrimental effects of individual NCs in the medication delivery system.
Metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related mortality. Metastasis is a process through which cancer spreads from its initial location to other sections of the body. Cancer cells' epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), anoikis resistance, cell migration, and angiogenesis are all well-known steps in this process. Investigating the molecular processes that govern cancer metastatic progression may lead to more effective diagnostic and treatment strategies. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently discovered to have a vital more than 200 nucleotides. A rising body of research indicates that lncRNAs have a role in a wide range of biological processes and diseases, including cancer. The usage of LncRNA in cancer metastasis has been widely researched. However, according to current studies, lncRNA is mostly associated with the EMT process. This review focuses on the processes behind lncRNA involvement in cancer metastasis.
As an important part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) inspection, face diagnosis is significant in judging the rise and fall of viscera and essence and diagnosing and treating diseases. Cancer is a serious disease that endangers human life and health. Face diagnosis can play a great role in diagnosing and treating tumors, but this approach has not achieved the expected effects due to the lack of research. Herein, we summarized the research regarding facial expression, color, shape, and state, demonstrating that facial diagnosis is significant in diagnosing and treating tumors. We also propose that facial diagnosis must be combined with computer technology to realize the objectification of facial diagnosis as soon as possible to play a greater role in diagnosing and treating tumors.
Alternative bio actively chemicals may be found in natural goods and traditional herb medications, but only a few plant-information formulations have been rigorously studied and verified for their potential as medicinal therapies. The study of plant-derived elements' immunomodulation capabilities and their ability as provoke the immune system as combat various elemental disorders like cancer is, nonetheless, a promising area in current therapeutics information on plant-derived chemicals. This research showed how network pharmacology may be applied as define and validate natural individual elements or more complicated preparations as prospective cancer therapies information on their various aim capabilities in this research. We give a summary of the present state of understanding on network pharmacology, with a particular emphasis on various technical methods and their implications for cancer treatment.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers, and lung adenocarcinoma is the most common NSCLC. Most patients with lung cancer eventually lead to local and metastatic recurrence, including many patients who have completely removed the primary tumor during surgery and have no noticeable metastasis. There are two different deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) libraries in eukaryotic cells. The de novo synthesis of dNTPs in the cytoplasm is coordinated with the cell cycle and reaches a peak in the S phase, thereby providing deoxynucleotides for the replication of genomic DNA. In contrast, the mitochondrial pool of dNTPs is maintained through the mitochondrial deoxynucleoside rescue pathway throughout the cell cycle and is essential for mtDNA replication. Mitochondria are vital cell powers in assimilation and catabolism. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) of mitochondria is essential for the self-renewal of cancer stem-like cells in lung cancer, glioblastoma and leukemia. Thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) and deoxyguanosine kinase (DGUOK) are two mitochondrial deoxynucleoside kinases, which are responsible for the transport of pyrimidine and purine deoxynucleoside in mitochondria. Apoptosis and autophagy are important processes that regulate cell proliferation and death in normal cells and cancer cells. Inducing cancer cell apoptosis and autophagy is an effective means to treat malignant tumors. This review discusses the research progress of the relationship between mitochondrial deoxyguanosine kinase and lung adenocarcinoma cell apoptosis and autophagy.
This study focuses on the impact of trade in environmental goods (green trade) on the environment. We found that green trade can decrease pollution levels by exploiting a panel of 277 Chinese cities from 2004 to 2013 and using the instrumental variable (IV) strategy. However, total trade openness is far less favorable to the environment. We also found that both green imports and exports are conducive to the Chinese environment, while ordinary green trade performs better than green processing trade. Nevertheless, the effects of green trade are restricted by a city's purchasing power and absorptive capacity, as well as the classifications of environmental goods. Furthermore, green trade mainly promotes local green technological progress to benefit the environment.
Green credit policy (GCP) relies on financial means to promote environmental governance. Whether it can achieve the goals of economic development and environmental protection, especially in the context of different institutional supplies, remains to be scientifically tested. Based on the implementation of China’s Green Credit Guidelines in 2012, this study uses panel data of Chinese companies from 2009 to 2019 to explore the influence of GCP on green technology innovation and the role of institutional supply in it. The results show that GCP is instrumental in promoting green innovation in heavily polluting enterprises, and the promotion effect is heterogeneous based on green patent types, firms’ ownership, and regional financial development levels. Further analysis finds that the supply of environmental protection systems by local governments can strengthen the green innovation effect of GCP. However, the institutional supply of innovation has not yet released a promotional effect. This paper finds that green credit can be used as an environmental governance tool and provides inspiration for local governments to issue environmental protection policies scientifically.
In China, the land arrangement behavior of over 160 million rural-urban migrant workers is closely related to the optimal allocation of rural land resources and sustainable development of urban and rural areas. Although previous studies show that social capital affects migrant workers’ land arrangement behavior, few empirical studies reveal the relationship between them, and the corresponding interventions remain unclear. Using survey data collected in Henan Province, China, and a multinomial logit model, this study empirically analyzes the mechanism behind the impact of social capital on migrant workers’ land arrangement behavior from the perspective of social capital. Results illustrate that social capital has a significant impact on the land arrangement behavior of migrant workers. The behavior is significantly correlated with the scale of migrant workers’ urban social networks, the degree of urban social trust, and urban belonging. More social capital in urban areas indicates a higher tendency for migrant workers to abandon their land contracting rights and become permanent urban residents. This study reveals the mechanism of social capital affecting migrant workers’ land arrangement behavior and provides a reference for decision-making with respect to guiding migrant workers’ land management behavior for other countries facing similar social problems.
With the development of information technology and its application in environmental governance, the role of the internet in improving energy efficiency and reducing energy-saving potential (ESP) has attracted more attention. In this study, the slack-based model (SBM) and the unexpected model, along with the entropy method, were applied to measure China's energy-saving potential and internet development. Further, we empirically analyzed the direct effect, mediating effect, threshold effect, and regional heterogeneity of the internet on ESP. Our conclusion shows that there is a significant spatial correlation between internet penetration and ESP. Internet penetration has become an important tool for reducing ESP, but this effect shows regional heterogeneity. Human capital accumulation, financial development, and industrial upgrading are important influencing mechanisms, but indirect effects are weaker than direct effects. The impact of internet penetration on ESP is non-linear, and for improving human capital accumulation, financial development, and industrial upgrading, the role of internet popularization in energy conservation is more obvious.
We present two approaches to forecasting parameters in the SABR model. The first approach is the vector autoregressive moving-average model (VARMA) for the time series of the in-sample calibrated parameters, and the second is based on machine learning techniques called epsilon-support vector regression (ε-SVR). Using daily data of S&P 500 ETF option prices from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2018, we first calibrate the daily values of the model parameters from the training sample, then conduct out-of-sample forecasting of parameters and pricing of options. Both approaches produce good fits between the forecasted and calibrated parameters for out-of-sample dates. A comparison study shows that using forecasted parameters as inputs, the SABR model generates better pricing results than assuming constant parameters or using lag parameters. We also discuss the market conditions under which one approach outperforms the other.
Bank deposit is closely related to systemic risks. In addition, considering that resident deposits in China have significant seasonal characteristics, this paper focuses on which component of deposits drives the systemic risk volatility, that is, it can supplement the existing forecast information. We use X-13ARIMA-SEATS to decompose deposit into three subsequences. The research findings show that the forecast effect of subsequence models is better than that of benchmark series. Most importantly, the model with trend component has the best forecast performance.
In the statistical standard of population aging adopted by the United Nations in 1956, the UN only focused on age, which is no longer a good statistical indicator in the context of deepening global population aging. To some extent, population aging is also the embodiment of social progress. This paper suggests improving the existing statistical standards of population aging to better adapt to the reality of social development.
Information leakage in the stock market has been widely proven. Information disclosure is sometimes uneven, and there is significant information asymmetry between ordinary investors and professional institutional investors. In this paper, Regression Discontinuity design (RDD) model is first employed to analyze the information leakage issues. Based on the daily closing stock prices of 15 capital service listed companies, we analyze the difference between the market reaction time and the disclosure time of two stamp tax policies. We found that the sample policies information may leaked to the market about two days earlier. This paper provides a new method analyzing information leakage.
China's carbon emission trading market has been formally established, but few studies have been conducted to analyze the impact of this policy on the regional urbanization level. Therefore, this paper evaluates whether the carbon trading pilot policy can enhance the regional urbanization level in China through the difference-in-differences method and analyzes the mediating role of industrial structure upgrading in this process. The results prove that the carbon trading market policy can accelerate the transformation and upgrading of industrial structure in the region so that it promotes the development of regional urbanization. Moreover, the effects of the policy are concentratedly manifested in the eastern region of China.
Speeding up digital development and building "digital China" is an important strategic deployment of the "14th Five-Year Plan" and a concrete measure to promote the high-quality development of China's sports industry and national health. Based on provincial data in China from 2011 to 2019, an empirical model is used to analyze the relationship between digital construction, sports industry development and national health investment. The results show that digitalization is instrumental for sports industry development and the improvement of national health in China. Digitalization has promoted the healthy development of sports industry and national health by increasing the input of public science and technology.
The vigorous development of the digital economy has brought new opportunities and challenges to the construction of local fiscal revenue efficiency. Based on the panel data from 2011 to 2020, this paper uses the fixed effect model, instrumental variable method and other empirical studies to investigate the impact of the development of the digital economy on the efficiency of local fiscal revenue. The research results show that the development of the digital economy has directly improved the efficiency of local fiscal revenue, and the regression results of instrumental variables are still significant. The mechanism analysis shows that the development of digital economy mainly promotes local fiscal revenue such as efficiency improvement by cultivating tax sources.
Green-biased technological progress takes into account the influence of energy input and pollution emissions, which is of great significance to China's green development. This paper decomposes technological progress into two categories: green input-biased technological progress (IBTC) and green output-biased technological progress (OBTC), using the Slacks-based measure integrating (SBM) model. The factor bias in technological progress is determined based on data from 34 industries in China from 2000 to 2015. The results show that green-biased technological progress exists significantly in the industry, and most of it promotes the growth of green total factor productivity. IBTC first tends to consume energy to pursue capital between capital input and energy input, while it tends to save energy after the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. Between labor input and energy input, it is biased towards saving labor and consuming resources. OBTC is biased towards promoting industrial growth and curbing pollution emissions. Medium and light-polluting industries are biased toward promoting industrial growth and curbing pollution emissions, while heavy-polluting industries are biased towards emitting more pollution.
We explore the connectedness and portfolio implications between Islamic and conventional bonds in global and GCC regions. We also compare which bonds performed better during our sample period. Unlike previous studies, we focus on Islamic bond markets compared to their conventional counterparts and highlight the GCC bonds (Islamic and conventional) in respect of global bonds. We apply the DCC-GJR-GARCH (1,1) method, the Sharpe ratio, and the portfolio implications strategy over the period from September 1, 2013, to February 23, 2022. Our time-varying results suggest that the relationship among all variables varies over time, but most of them are positive, suggesting that there are fewer diversification opportunities between Islamic and conventional bonds. Hedging and diversification benefits are found only in the limited period among these variables, especially between GCC bonds and global bonds, and global Sukuk and GCC Sukuk. The findings of risk-adjusted returns reveal that Islamic bonds outperform their conventional counterparts. Moreover, mixed results are found in the case of hedging costs, and the majority of the fund, based on optimal weights, should be invested in Islamic bonds. Our study endows investors and regulators in the global and GCC markets with new insights on how to shield their investments and the financial system from financial crises through a hedging strategy with Islamic finance.
As a reversible post-transcriptional modification, N6-methyladeno sine is the most common form of RNA modification in eukaryotic mRNA. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are a subpopulation of cells with self-renewal ability and differentiation potential, have been regarded to be one of the roots of tumor occurrence, recurrence, and metastasis. Currently, numerous studies have demonstrated that m6A RNA modification is critically implicated in the regulation of CSCs stemness or the CSC-like traits of cancer cells. This review summarized the effects of m6A RNA modification-related enzymes and underlying mechanisms contributing to CSCs or cancer cell stemness, which may provide novel targets and research directions for the specifical elimination of CSCs or cancer cells with stemness.
Entrepreneurs are important actors in economic activities and creators of social wealth. Excellent entrepreneurs contribute their wisdom to the accumulation of social wealth and the promotion of high-quality economic and social development. The business environment is the main manifestation of the soft power of cities and regional economic development, and a better business environment can effectively attract enterprises and promote their sustainable growth. Using data from Chinese A-share listed companies from 2009-2019 as a research sample, the following research conclusions were drawn: (1) A better business environment helps enhance entrepreneurship. (2) A better business environment promotes entrepreneurship by reducing rent-seeking expenses and corporate credit costs. (3) Compared to traditional enterprises, high-tech enterprises are better able to enjoy the benefits brought by business environment optimization and further enhance entrepreneurship. When competition is low, entrepreneurs face lower rent-seeking expenses, which is conducive to stimulating entrepreneurship. The businessenvironment can promote fairness and bring more equal financing opportunities for enterprises, which has a higher impact on entrepreneurship for the group facing higher financing constraints. This study meticulously analyzes the impact ofthebusiness environment on entrepreneurship, providing references for the next steps of optimizing the business environment and enhancing entrepreneurship.