Issue 4 (December)

Vol. 2 (2023), EAL

8 articles

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Open Access Journal Article
ESG-focused hedge fund activism
by Derwis Dilek
EAL  2023, 35; 2(4), 35; 10.58567/eal02040001 - 17 July 2023
Investment funds are increasingly focusing on ESG issues, seeking to contribute to improving environmental, social, and governance concerns. ESG-focused investing involves promoting good ESG performance and may result in a decrease in expected financial returns. This may lead to a conflict between solely profit-focused shareholders and ESG-focused investors, who may respond acc [...] Read more

Open Access Journal Article
Are greener RTAs reducing “dirty” exports?
by Li Cao , Dahai Fu  and  Ying Zhang
EAL  2023, 36; 2(4), 36; 10.58567/eal02040002 - 17 July 2023
We examine the impact of environmental provisions in regional trade agreements (RTAs) on the environmentally harmful exports. Results show that environmental clauses in RTAs help reduce “dirty” exports, whereas RTA depth promotes exports. The exporting country may divert its polluting exports to its trading partner if it faces more environmental provisions with othe [...] Read more

Open Access Journal Article
Student loan debt and U.S. married households’ stock investment decisions
by Thomas Korankye
EAL  2023, 37; 2(4), 37; 10.58567/eal02040003 - 20 July 2023
This study aims to examine the effects of student loan debt on the decisions of U.S. married households to invest in stocks located in non-retirement accounts. Using longitudinal datasets from the 2011 to 2017 U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics and a fixed effects logit model, the results show mixed findings. The presence of student debt decreases the probability that married [...] Read more

Open Access Journal Article
Globalization and innovation: Evidence from Vietnamese small and medium sized enterprises
by Ba Hoang Nguyen , Ho Hoang Gia Bao , Hoang Phong Le , Tram B.T. Tran  and  Thanh An Vu
EAL  2023, 38; 2(4), 38; 10.58567/eal02040004 - 26 July 2023
The purpose of this research is to investigate how globalization affects innovation in Vietnam’s small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Utilizing Probit model and the data from Vietnam’s SMEs Survey during the period 2005-2015, the research examines the micro and macro effects of globalization on the innovation of these businesses. The main results show that at [...] Read more

Open Access Journal Article
The gap between formalism and empirical science: the example of the non-dictatorship condition
by W. Robert J. Alexander
EAL  2023, 39; 2(4), 39; 10.58567/eal02040005 - 07 August 2023
Since the establishment of neoclassical economics in the nineteenth century, there has been a debate in the economics profession over the role played by mathematics. Mathematics can add precision to discussion of real-world empirical problems in economics, but care needs to be taken when formalizing a problem to ensure that errors of translation are not made. Formalism allows o [...] Read more

Open Access Journal Article
The dynamics of traditions and women’s employment: Evidence from a developing country
by Safdar Ullah Khan , Arthur H. Goldsmith  and  Gulasekaran Rajaguru
EAL  2023, 40; 2(4), 40; 10.58567/eal02040006 - 14 August 2023
The workforce participation rate, and hence the level of employment, for women in Pakistan is among the lowest in South Asia – standing at 25 percent in 2023. Conventional explanations attribute this to poor skills and cultural norms of families and society at large. Empirical work has established that low levels of education, and community attitudes regarding gender role [...] Read more

Open Access Journal Article
Hedonic and utilitarian online shopping: A preliminary investigation
by Daniele Scarpi de Claricini
EAL  2023, 42; 2(4), 42; 10.58567/eal02040007 - 29 August 2023
This research letter investigates hedonic and utilitarian orientations to Online shopping. The data highlight a positive correlation of hedonism with both the length and the frequency of connection to the Internet. It considers two products, jeans and personal computers, that previous literature had identified as being characterized by utilitarian and hedonic features. The resu [...] Read more

Open Access Journal Article
Does ‘Being Your Own Boss’ raise your chance of becoming someone else’s Boss?
by Lixin Cai
EAL  2023, 43; 2(4), 43; 10.58567/eal02040008 - 15 December 2023
Self-employment is often associated with entrepreneurship and regarded as a driver of innovation, job creation and economic growth. As such, many countries have policies to promote and support self-employment. One mechanism for self-employment to drive job growth is for sole traders to become an employer through hiring employees. However, there are few studies that investigate [...] Read more
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