Global distributions of net factor income from abroad (NFI) during 1990-2019 have witnessed that (1) the United States is the top one country accounting for 40% of surpluses of the global total, while a surge in China’s deficit with its GDP increase; (2) GDP growth in emerging economies has a price scissors with NFI deficits; (3) asymmetric NFI has covered up the severity of rich countries’ global arbitrages especially from emerging economies; (4) China’s economic power is exaggerated by the PPP-based GDP implemented by the World Bank. It concludes that (1) developing countries have paid for huge hidden cost for their emergence; (2) the statement of the United States suffering losses absolutely does not hold; (3) GDP is not a universal tool for measuring what matters. It suggests that (1) emerging economies countries should beware of the potential misleading of GDP on economic measurement and economic power comparison ; (2) GDP should be critiqued from the applicability perspective of economies’ types; (3) it is urgent to clarify some misjudgment and misleading concepts in the economic affairs surrounding the global value chain patterns; (4) the construction of national governance capacity in emerging economies should focus on “social infrastructure”, of which one of the important parts is an effective economic statistics system; (5) emerging economies should carry out the strategic layout of international economic statistics talents to enhance their soft powers.
Forest resources, as one of the most important natural resources, have high ecological value. The calculation of their ecological value is an important part of improving the accounting of natural resources assets. Based on the analysis of the basic situation of China's forest resources, this paper starts from the economic theory of forest resources, discusses the principle of forest resources in national economic operation, analyzes the output, value, price and other issues of forest resources, and probes into the necessity of studying forest resources. Then, based on the purpose of compiling the balance sheet of natural resources, the forest resources accounting theory was studied from the aspects of subject and object, scope, table design and so on. On the basis of relevant theoretical research, the main ecological functions of different types of forest resources are discussed. In practical calculation, the parameters of some accounting methods are adjusted to adapt to the local situation. Some methods of ecological value calculation such as soil conservation and water conservation are put forward, and some ideas for further improvement are put forward. Finally, taking Qiandao Lake as an example, the ecological value of its forest resources is calculated. Through calculation, the annual soil conservation value of Qiandao Lake forest resources was obtained. Combined with the research conclusion and practice progress, the future research prospect is put forward.
Because of the complexity of indirect financial intermediary services (FISIM) accounting, the traditional price index deflation method can no longer meet its accounting needs. The manual of price and volume measurement suggests that the stock deflation method and output index method should be used to calculate the volume of FISIM. Comparing the two accounting frameworks, it can be found that the key to the implementation of the stock deflation method is to set a scientific and reasonable deflation index from two aspects of service price and the service quantity, while the key of the output index method is the selection of the output index and the determination of weight. This paper compares the application cases of stock deflation method and output index method in practice, summarizes the similarities, differences, advantages and disadvantages of each case in index construction, index selection and weight determination, and further provides a reference for China FISIM volume accounting.
The vigorous development of the digital economy provides a new research perspective for alleviating local financial pressure. Based on the provincial panel data from 2013 to 2020, the mediating effect model and threshold regression model were used to explore the effect and mechanism of the digital economy on local fiscal pressure. The research shows that the digital economy has a significant alleviating effect on local financial pressure by increasing fiscal revenue, and this alleviating effect has a threshold effect on entrepreneurial activity. From the perspective of dimension, the alleviating effect of the digital economy development environment on local financial pressure is better than that of digital industrialization and industrial digitization. From a regional perspective, the digital economy has the most apparent impact on the western region. In addition, the quantile regression results show that with the increase in financial pressure, the easing effect of the digital economy shows an inverted U-shaped change. Therefore, in order to effectively alleviate the financial pressure on local governments, China should continue to promote the development of the digital economy, take multiple measures to increase entrepreneurial activity, and encourage various regions to implement differentiated digital economy development strategies according to local conditions.
It's critical for environmental governance to understand the effectiveness of policy interventions as well as their working mechanisms. This paper focuses on the vehicle license plate-based management, a sort of policy intervention understudied in environmental governance literature. Specifically, we study the automobile purchase restriction (APR), a major method of license management to address urban air pollution and traffic congestion recently launched by the authorities of China. However, limited studies have quantified the environmental impact of such purchase restriction. Based on the panel data of PM2.5 concentration in 330 cities in China during 1998-2016, this study aims to explore the causal impact of Beijing automobile purchase restriction on air quality, using the regression control method and high-dimensional data regression of machine learning. The average PM2.5 concentration did not decrease but increased because of the purchase restriction. Over time, the deterioration effect on urban air quality will not alleviate. Besides, the restriction cannot enhance urban air quality by decreasing the increase of PM2.5. Despite excluding the impact of driving restriction, the purchase restriction markedly aggravate urban air quality. This paper has some policy implications for policymakers on the impact of urban vehicle license management with caution. Hence, it is essential to promote urban economy, production, and lifestyle to attain the win-win goal of air pollution control and urban development.
With the advancement of science and technology and the advent of the digital economy, the digital economy has become a new driving force for economic development, and the digital economy industry at home and abroad is facing new opportunities for survival and development. However, due to the special development model and profit mode of the digital economy industry, the traditional performance evaluation method is no longer applicable, so it is particularly important to improve the previous performance evaluation method. This paper first adjusts the customer value assessment (CLV) model according to the characteristics of the digital economy industry, and then analyzes the traditional EVA based on the adjusted user value assessment (ULV) model of the digital economy industry. The performance evaluation system is improved, and the representative enterprises of Alibaba, JD and Pinduoduo in the digital economy industry are selected for performance evaluation and analysis, and the user value performance evaluation model of the digital economy industry is integrated, innovated and standardized, in order to provide reference and reference for the follow-up research and practice of performance evaluation in the digital economy industry.
Carbon emissions trading is essential for reducing carbon emissions, and its role in regional carbon unlocking needs further clarification. This study uses the difference-in-differences (DID) model and synthetic control model (SCM) to evaluate the carbon unlocking effect of China’s six pilot carbon trading provinces. This study found that (1) carbon lock-in effects in China are mainly influenced by technology lock-in and fixed input lock-in; (2) each province’s overall carbon lock-in level presents a decreasing trend yearly, and the regional distribution presents characteristics of “low in the east and high in the west”; (3) carbon emissions trading pilot policies effectively promote the carbon unlocking effect in pilot regions overall, with Guangdong having the most significant unlocking effect. Conversely, Beijing, Hubei, Chongqing, and Shanghai also had different degrees of carbon unlocking. Finally, (4) an assessment of impact mechanisms indicates that technology and institutions have a significant mediating role in effectively promoting carbon unlocking under the carbon trading policy. Conversely, social behavior has an inverse effect, and fixed assets are not affected by the policy. This study demonstrates the carbon unlocking effect of carbon emissions trading and provides a quantitative reference for implementing carbon emissions trading policies and determining carbon unlocking paths.
According to economic theory and common sense, the issuance of consumption coupons on one hand stimulated the increasing of residents' consumption, but on the other pushed up the price level. In this paper, using the theory of mechanism design, the game model was built to analyze the relationship between the effect of consumer coupons during the epidemic and the number of merchants participated. The results show that the smaller the merchants’ number, the weaker the coupons’ effect, vice versa. Then, using KNN regression method, combined with the monthly year-on-year data of CPI from 1998 to 2020, this paper analyzes the changes of CPI forecast value and actual value in the first 10 months of 2020, finding that the actual value of CPI is higher than the predicted one during the first two months of 2020, but lower from March 2020 on, which further verifies the conclusion of game analysis.
This paper uses China Household Income Project rural household survey data spanning 30 years (1988-2018) to study the impact of China’s industrialization on rural household income. In the semiparametric regression model, we use the rural households’ distance to the manufacturing hub to analyze the spillover effect of industrialization on their income and the spatial attenuation. The results show that the income gap between rural households in Guangdong and other provinces increased from 1988 to 2002, but continuously decreased from 2002 to 2018; the rural households’ distance to the Pearl River Delta or the Yangtze River Delta, the two international manufacturing hubs, has a significant impact on their income, which has been increasing from 1988 to 1995, but has been decreasing since the new century. On the contrary, the influence of the rural households’ distance to the provincial capital on their income has been increasing since the new century.
The study analyses the long growth rate period contribution to human development in West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) from 1996 to 2019 introducing time and institutional indicators effects analyses. Time and institutional effects both greatly improve model's diagnostics statistics. Time effects reduce growth variable coefficient and its significance, but not institutional effects. Combined effects inhibit growth contribution to human development. It appears essential to increase the resiliency of growth and the efficiency of government institutions.
The global financial crisis has affected all countries during the period 2007-2014. Tourist companies, especially in Italy, play a significant role in the economy of a country. The performance of tourism companies, and in particular hotels and travel agencies and tour operators, will be analysed in this paper, relative to the period of the crisis. The aim of this paper is to analyze profitability dynamics of the aforementioned tourist companies, to check whether they have suffered the effects of the global crisis. To this end, data from AIDA database relating to Italian companies in the sector were used. The profitability of these companies has been analyzed using the main profitability ratios, ROI and ROS ratios. An analysis of the trends and ANOVA of these ratios was carried out for the period 2007-2015. In this way, it has been verified whether the global crisis has affected profitability dynamics of hotels and travel agencies and tour operators in Italy. There is a parallelism in the trends of the main operators' indices in the three Italian macro-regions. The best performance is in the South, in a less developed economic context. The crisis has reduced the income indices in the first three years, even if the figure remains positive. Since 2012 there is a clear recovery, especially for hotels; intermediaries, on the other hand, suffer from competition from websites. However, the indices confirm the close relationship between travel agencies, tour operators and hotels. ROI mainly rewards first, while ROS intermediaries.
The impact of international tourism on emerging markets has been overwhelmingly beneficial. Despite the obvious benefits of tourism, it comes at a high price for the environment in the form of pollution. Brazil's annual tourist influx has the potential to boost economic development and damage the country's ecosystems. The objective of this investigation is to analyze, using time series data ranging from 1990 to 2019, the effects of tourism and economic growth (GDP) on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Brazil. The stationarity of the data was examined by employing unit root tests, and an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) technique was used to investigate the link between the factors, taking both the long- and the short-run into consideration. This research shows that there are long-term and short-term ties between Brazil's tourism industry, GDP, and CO2 emissions. Yet, both tourism and economic expansion have had serious negative effects on Brazil's ecology. These results indicate that in order to maintain environmental quality in Brazil, policymakers need to pursue more eco-friendly economic expansion as well as environmentally conscious tourist regulations.
This paper uses the questionnaire data of the World Bank’s China Enterprise Survey 2012 to establish a Logit model to empirically study the relationship between knowledge sources and technological innovation in Chinese manufacturing enterprises. The results show that although internal and external knowledge has a positive effect on enterprise technological innovation in general, there are significant differences when taking the types of innovation, subject characteristic and the types of cooperation into consideration. From the current development stage of China's manufacturing enterprises, external knowledge sources, external enterprise knowledge subjects, and employee knowledge have a more positive effect on technological innovation, which also shows that the role of technical employees on technological innovation has a significant threshold effect, and only after a certain degree of accumulation can internal technical employees have a more significant positive effect on technological innovation.
This research evaluates the efficacy of survival models in forecasting startup failures and investigates their economic implications. Several machine learning survival models, including Kernel SVM, DeepSurv, Survival Random Forest, and MTLR, are assessed using the concordance index (C-index) as a measure of prediction accuracy. The findings reveal that more sophisticated models, such as Multi-Task Logical Regression (MTLR) and Random Forest, outperform the standard Cox and Kaplan Meier (K-M) models in terms of predicted accuracy.
The aim of this study is to solve the problem of labor allocation in cases where the company has fewer employees than the number of existing jobs based on the evaluation of work quality according to multiple objectives. Optimizing labor allocation not only benefits the company by maximizing the use of human resources, but also saves employees' energy. In addition, employees are assigned to tasks that match their skills and qualifications, maximizing their productivity. The research results show that the multi-objective decision-making algorithm based on the Hungarian algorithm is a suitable method to help leaders of companies solve the aforementioned problem text.
Purpose: To realize the benefits a Quality Management System (QMS), an organization needs to effectively implement its principles. This includes embracing these principles within an enabling environment. Hence, organizational structure is a critical success factor for adopting quality management systems. This paper aims at understanding how the organizational structure impacts ISO 9001 QMS implementation and vise versa, besides exploring how quality management initiatives affect organizational resilience through parts. Design/methodology/approach: The research deploys a qualitative methodology, with an outsider-insider approach. 32 semi-structured interviews were conducted, plus one final reflective interview. Interview questions dealt with structural constructs: communication, employee engagement, employee empowerment, process/routine-orientation, multidisciplinarity, cross-functionality, expertise-utilization and change-readiness. The questions also dealt with how the organizational structure impacted ISO 9001 implementation and vice versa. Findings: The results show that ISO 9001 implementation was more successful and fruitful under process-orientation and to some degree under semi-process orientation, while it looked inconsistent under routine-orientation. This indicates a significant role played by the organizational structure when it comes to ISO 9001 implementation. More importantly, the results also demonstrate that ISO 9001 implementation managed to improve organizational resilience by consistently driving the organizational structure toward higher levels of process-orientation for process-oriented units, whereas it failed to realize such impact for routine-oriented units. Originality/value: This study is unique as it is the first - within the reviewed literature - to examine the moderating role of the organizational structure between the ISO 9001 standard and organizational resilience. It draws a roadmap for the successful realization of organizational resilience through quality management systems, considering organizational structure constructs.
A differences-in-differences (DID) model and financial data from Chinese listed firms from 2011 to 2019 are used to empirically investigate the effects of the digital economy on corporate financial asset holdings using the "Broadband China" policy as a quasi-natural experiment. After robustness testing and heterogeneity effects are disposed of, the digital economy dramatically boosts corporate financial asset holdings. According to the channel analysis, the digital economy can reduce corporate financing constraints and boost corporate financial asset holdings, notably based on speculative demand. Heterogeneity analysis shows that the digital economy has a greater impact on corporate financial asset holdings for firms with higher market competition, small-scale firms with a short-listed age, and firms in the western region. This paper provides policy guidance for enterprises returning to the real economy.