Open Access Journal Article

Assessing Corruption in Times of Crisis: Empirical Evidence from Greece

by Paraskevi Boufounou a,* orcid Kanellos Toudas b orcid  and  Athanasia Georgiou c
Department of Economics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Department of Agricultural Business Administration & Supply Systems Management, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Hellenic Open University, Athens, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
JEA  2024, 75; 3(4), 75;
Received: 30 July 2023 / Accepted: 16 September 2023 / Published Online: 15 December 2024


The goal of this paper is to provide an overall presentation of corruption as occupational fraud building on the findings of an empirical study conducted in Greece. As uncertainty leads to increased levels of corruption, Greece was chosen due to the prolonged period of uncertainty the country faces, caused by the 2010 financial crisis and followed by the Covid pandemic crisis. 400 questionnaires reviewing corruption perception were gathered and analyzed by gender, age, marital status, education level, position, occupation, and monthly income, as well as urban vs rural area of residence. The findings of the study were compared with and critically evaluated against those of the previous studies for Greece. Respondents in age group 36-49 believe that if appropriate measures are taken it is possible to tackle corruption in the public sector, in contrast to people aged 18-35 who disagree completely. Residents of rural areas do not consider corruption to be a serious problem and are more willing to whistleblowing (in contrast to residents of urban areas). The study findings have important practical implications in the context of designing effective corruption reduction policies.

Copyright: © 2024 by Boufounou, Toudas and Georgiou. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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ACS Style
Boufounou, P.; Toudas, K.; Georgiou, A. Assessing Corruption in Times of Crisis: Empirical Evidence from Greece. Journal of Economic Analysis, 2024, 3, 75.
AMA Style
Boufounou P, Toudas K, Georgiou A. Assessing Corruption in Times of Crisis: Empirical Evidence from Greece. Journal of Economic Analysis; 2024, 3(4):75.
Chicago/Turabian Style
Boufounou, Paraskevi; Toudas, Kanellos; Georgiou, Athanasia 2024. "Assessing Corruption in Times of Crisis: Empirical Evidence from Greece" Journal of Economic Analysis 3, no.4:75.
APA style
Boufounou, P., Toudas, K., & Georgiou, A. (2024). Assessing Corruption in Times of Crisis: Empirical Evidence from Greece. Journal of Economic Analysis, 3(4), 75.

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