Open Access Review

Role of macrophage polarization in cancer progression and their association with COVID-19 severity

by Abhimanyu Thakur a,* orcid Rumpa Banerjee b Sudha Thakur c Gaurav Kumar d orcid  and  Shyam Sundar Thakur e
Ben May Department for Cancer Research, Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, IL, USA.
Eminent College of Pharmaceutical Technology, Barasat, Kolkata, India.
National Institute for Locomotor Disabilities (Divyangjan), Kolkata, India.
School of Basic and Applied Science, Galgotias University, Greater Noida 203201, India.
Ishwar Chandra Vidyanagar College, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
CI  2023, 19; 2(1), 19;
Received: 5 June 2023 / Accepted: 25 June 2023 / Published Online: 25 June 2023


Macrophages are a type of white blood cells that can exist in two different functional states, known as M1 and M2. M1 macrophages secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines that can promote tumor growth and metastasis, whereas M2 macrophages secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines that can inhibit tumor progression. This phenomenon, referred to as macrophage polarization, has been implicated in the development and progression of cancer. Furthermore, macrophage polarization is currently being investigated in the context of COVID-19 severity. It is believed that M1 macrophages may contribute to the excessive inflammation observed in severe COVID-19 cases, while M2 macrophages may confer protection against the disease. Hence, comprehending the role of macrophage polarization in both cancer and COVID-19 has the potential to enhance treatment strategies for both conditions.

Copyright: © 2023 by Thakur, Banerjee, Thakur, Kumar and Thakur. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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ACS Style
Thakur, A.; Banerjee, R.; Thakur, S.; Kumar, G.; Thakur, S. S. Role of macrophage polarization in cancer progression and their association with COVID-19 severity. Cancer Insight, 2023, 2, 19.
AMA Style
Thakur A, Banerjee R, Thakur S, Kumar G, Thakur S S. Role of macrophage polarization in cancer progression and their association with COVID-19 severity. Cancer Insight; 2023, 2(1):19.
Chicago/Turabian Style
Thakur, Abhimanyu; Banerjee, Rumpa; Thakur, Sudha; Kumar, Gaurav; Thakur, Shyam S. 2023. "Role of macrophage polarization in cancer progression and their association with COVID-19 severity" Cancer Insight 2, no.1:19.
APA style
Thakur, A., Banerjee, R., Thakur, S., Kumar, G., & Thakur, S. S. (2023). Role of macrophage polarization in cancer progression and their association with COVID-19 severity. Cancer Insight, 2(1), 19.

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