Open Access Review

Economic impact of All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) on local economies: a literature review

by Kripa Neupane a Arun Regmi a,* orcid Lisa Grab a Michael G. Jacobson a  and  Timothy W. Kelsey b
Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Department of Agricultural Economics, Sociology, and Education, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
REA  2024, 25; 3(1), 25;
Received: 11 October 2023 / Accepted: 26 February 2024 / Published Online: 1 March 2024


The use of All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) has gained considerable attention within the recreation industry. The incorporation of ATVs into tourism and recreational activities has demonstrated substantial economic potential for local economies. However, there is a lack of comprehensive knowledge regarding the economic impact of ATV recreation. This paper conducts an extensive review of existing literature from 2004 to 2022, evaluating the economic impact of ATVs on local economies in the United States. The review aims to identify commonalities and disparities among existing economic impact studies and assess whether these studies have included costs associated with ATV-induced environmental, societal, and public health damages in their economic assessments. To this end, there is a scarcity of scientific peer reviewed journal articles that exclusively focus on the economic impact of ATVs. As such, we reviewed a total of seven publications comprising reports. The results of our analysis shed light on similarities and differences in aspects of resident and non-resident ATV spending, type of ATV expenditures, and the approaches used to evaluate economic impact assessment. The findings indicate that existing studies have assessed the economic impact of ATVs solely based on gross expenditures, lacking comprehensive inclusion of the costs associated with ATV damages to the environment, society, and human health. This study advocates for the need for a more comprehensive consideration of both benefits and costs in the economic impact of ATVs to assist ATV business managers, policymakers, and researchers in making informed decisions and planning future programs.

Copyright: © 2024 by Neupane, Regmi, Grab, Jacobson and Kelsey. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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ACS Style
Neupane, K.; Regmi, A.; Grab, L.; Jacobson, M. G.; Kelsey, T. W. Economic impact of All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) on local economies: a literature review. Review of Economic Assessment, 2024, 3, 25.
AMA Style
Neupane K, Regmi A, Grab L, Jacobson M G, Kelsey T W. Economic impact of All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) on local economies: a literature review. Review of Economic Assessment; 2024, 3(1):25.
Chicago/Turabian Style
Neupane, Kripa; Regmi, Arun; Grab, Lisa; Jacobson, Michael G.; Kelsey, Timothy W. 2024. "Economic impact of All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) on local economies: a literature review" Review of Economic Assessment 3, no.1:25.
APA style
Neupane, K., Regmi, A., Grab, L., Jacobson, M. G., & Kelsey, T. W. (2024). Economic impact of All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) on local economies: a literature review. Review of Economic Assessment, 3(1), 25.

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