Open Access Journal Article

Inverted U-shaped relationship between non-labor income and labor hours, with wage rates as the threshold variable

by Qi Wang a,*
School of Public Administration, Shandong Technology and Business University, Yantai, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
REA  2024, 24; 3(1), 24;
Received: 13 October 2023 / Accepted: 16 February 2024 / Published Online: 20 February 2024


Non-labor income is a crucial factor influencing time allocation, and prior studies have primarily concentrated on the linear association between non-labor income and labor hours. Utilizing micro-survey data from the CFPS in 2018 and 2020 and employing the panel threshold model, this paper empirically identifies a double threshold with the wage rate as the threshold variable. This finding reveals a non-linear relationship between non-labor income and labor hours. The two thresholds categorize the relationship into three intervals. In the first interval, non-labor income significantly promotes labor hours, while in the second and third intervals, non-labor income significantly decreases labor hours, exhibiting slightly varying degrees of influence. In general, the relationship between non-labor income and labor hours demonstrates an irregular inverted U-shaped pattern. Upon dividing the workers in the sample into three groups based on the two thresholds, it is observed that wage rates exhibit a positive correlation with non-labor income.

Copyright: © 2024 by Wang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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ACS Style
Wang, Q. Inverted U-shaped relationship between non-labor income and labor hours, with wage rates as the threshold variable. Review of Economic Assessment, 2024, 3, 24.
AMA Style
Wang Q. Inverted U-shaped relationship between non-labor income and labor hours, with wage rates as the threshold variable. Review of Economic Assessment; 2024, 3(1):24.
Chicago/Turabian Style
Wang, Qi 2024. "Inverted U-shaped relationship between non-labor income and labor hours, with wage rates as the threshold variable" Review of Economic Assessment 3, no.1:24.
APA style
Wang, Q. (2024). Inverted U-shaped relationship between non-labor income and labor hours, with wage rates as the threshold variable. Review of Economic Assessment, 3(1), 24.

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